Terms Full Form Defination
Acceptance of Goods   The process of receiving a consignment from a consignor, usually against the issue of a receipt. From this moment and from this place the carrier's responsibility for the consignment begins.
Act of God   Accidents of a nature beyond human control such as flood, lightning or hurricane usually quoted as 'force majeure'.
Ad Valorem   In proportion to the value: A phrase applied to certain freight or customs duties levied on goods, property, etc. set as a percentage of their value.
Advice Note   A written piece of information e.g. about the status of the goods.
Agency Fee   Fee payable by a shipowner or ship operator to a port agent.
Agent   A person or organisation authorised to act for or on behalf of another person or organisation An Agent is a corporate body with, which there is an agreement to perform particular functions on behalf of them at an agreed payment. An Agent is either a part of the organisation or an independent body.
Air Waybill   A document made out by or on behalf of the carrier(s) confirming receipt of the goods by the carrier and evidencing the contract between the shipper and the carrier(s) for the carriage of goods as described therein.
Allotment   A share of the capacity of a means of transport assigned to a certain party, e.g. a carrier or an agent, for the purpose of the booking of cargo for a specific voyage.
American Bureau of Shipping   American classification society which has established rules and regulations for the classification of seagoing vessels or equipment.
Abbreviation: ABS    
Arbitration   The process of referring to an agreed person for judgement on issues of dispute, without requiring the use of courts.
Arrival Date   The date on which goods or a means of transport is due to arrive at the delivery site of the transport.
Arrival Notice   A notice sent by a carrier to a nominated notify party advising of the arrival of a certain shipment or consignment.
Assignment   The transfer of certain rights from one party to another.
Authorised Consignee /Consignor   A trader authorised by the European Commission (regulation 2454/93) to receive or despatch consignments under transit procedures without having to present goods and documents directly at the customs office.
Authorization   The commission to a certain person or body to act on behalf of another person or body. The person or body e.g can be authorised to issue Bills of Lading or to collect freight.
Average   In marine insurance: a loss or damage to or in respect of goods or equipment. The numerical result obtained by dividing the sum of two or more quantities by the number of quantities
Average Adjusters   In general average affairs average adjusters are entrusted with the task of apportioning the loss and expenditure over the parties interested in the maritime venture and to determine which expenses are to be regarded as average or general average.
Bill of Lading   A particular article, stipulation or single proviso in a Bill of Lading. A clause can be standard and can be pre-printed on the Bill of Lading.
Bank Guarantee   An undertaking by a bank to be answerable for payment of a sum of money in the event of non performance by the party on whose behalf the guarantee is issued.
Bar Coding   A method of encoding data for fast and accurate electronic readability. Bar codes are a series of alternating bars and spaces printed or stamped on products, labels, or other media, representing encoded information which can be read by electronic readers, used to facilitate timely and accurate input of data to a computer system. Bar codes represent letters and/or numbers and special characters like +, /, -, etc.
Bay   A vertical division of a vessel from stem to stern, used as a part of the indication of a stowage place for containers. The numbers run from stem to stern; odd numbers indicate a 20 foot position, even numbers indicate a 40 foot position.
Bay Plan   A stowage plan which shows the locations of all the containers on the vessel.
Berth   A location in a port where a vessel can be moored often indicated by a code or name.
Bilateral Transport Agreement   Agreement between two nations concerning their transport relations.
Bill of Exchange   An unconditional order in writing to pay a certain sum of money to a named person.
Bill of Health   The Bill of Health is the certificate issued by local medical authorities indicating the general health conditions in the port of departure or in the ports of call. The Bill of Health must have been visaed before departure by the Consul of the country of destination.When a vessel has free pratique, this means that the vessel has a clean Bill of Health certifying that there is no question of contagious disease and that all quarantine regulations have been complied with, so that people may embark and disembark.
Bill of Lading   A document which evidences a contract of carriage by sea. The document has the following functions:
    ? A receipt of goods, duly signed by an authorised person on behalf of the carriers.
    ? A document of title to the goods described therein.
    ? Evidence of the terms and conditions of carriage agreed upon between the two parties.At the moment 3 different models are used:
    o A document for either Combined Transport or Port to Port shipments depending whether the relevant spaces for place of receipt and/or place of delivery are indicated on the face of the document
    o A classic marine Bill of Lading in which the carrier is also responsible for the part of the transport actually performed by himself.
    o Sea Waybill: A non-negotiable document, which can only be made out to a named consignee. No surrender of the document by the consignee is required.
Bill of Lading Clause   A particular article, stipulation or single proviso in a Bill of Lading. A clause can be standard and can be pre-printed on the Bill of Lading.
Bill of Material   A list of all parts, sub-assemblies and raw materials that constitute a particular assembly, showing the quantity of each required item.
Block Train   A number of railway wagons (loaded with containers), departing from a certain place and running straight to a place of destination, without marshalling, transhipping or any coupling or de-coupling of wagons.
Bona Fide   In good faith; without dishonesty, fraud or deceit.
Bonded   The storage of certain goods under charge of customs viz.customs seal until the import duties are paid or until the goods are taken out of the country.
    ? Bonded warehouse (place where goods can be placed under bond)
    ? Bonded store (place on a vessel where goods are placed behind seal until the time that the vessel leaves the port or country again)
    ? Bonded goods (dutiable goods upon which duties have not been paid i.e. goods in transit or warehoused pending customs clearance)
Booking   The offering by a shipper of cargo for transport and the acceptance of the offering by the carrier or his agent.
Booking Reference Number   The number assigned to a certain booking by the carrier or his agent.
Break Bulk   ? To commence discharge
    ? To strip unitised cargo
Break Bulk Cargo   General cargo conventionally stowed as opposed to unitised, containerised and Roll On-Roll Off cargo.
Broker   Person who acts as an agent or intermediary in negotiating contracts.
Brussels Tariff Nomenclature BSI Container Specification    
Buffer Stock   A quantity of goods or articles kept in store to safeguard against unforeseen shortages or demands.
Bulk Cargo   Unpacked homogeneous cargo poured loose in a certain space of a vessel or container e.g. oil and grain.
Bulk Carrier   Single deck vessel designed to carry homogeneous unpacked dry cargoes such as grain, iron ore and coal.
Bulk Container   A container designed for the carriage of free-flowing dry cargoes, which are loaded through hatchways in the roof of the container and discharged through hatchways at one end of the container.
Bunker Adjustment Factor   Adjustment applied by liner or liner conferences to offset the effect of fluctuations in the cost of bunkers.
Bunkers   Quantity of fuel on board a vessel.
Bureau Veritas   French classification society.
Business Process   A business process is the action taken to respond to particular events, convert inputs into outputs, and produce particular results. Business processes are what the enterprise must do to conduct its business successfully.
Business Process Model   The business process model provides a breakdown (process decomposition) of all levels of business processes within the scope of a business area. It also shows process dynamics, lower-level process interrelationships. In Summary it includes all diagrams related to a process definition that allows for understanding what the business process is doing (and not how).
Buyer   Party to which merchandise is sold.
Cabotage   ? Transport of goods between two ports or places located in the same country.
    ? Transport of cargo in a country other than the country where the vehicle is registered road-cargo
    ? The carriage of a container from a surplus area to an area specified by the Owner of that container, in exchange of which and during which the operator can use this container.
CAD   Terms of payment: if the buyer of goods pays for the goods against transfer of the documents, entitling him to obtain delivery of the goods from the carrier.
CAF   Adjustment applied by P&O; Nedlloyd lines or liner conferences on freight rates to offset losses or gains for carriers resulting from fluctuations in exchange rates of tariff currencies.
    The visit of a vessel to a port.
Call Sign   A code published by the International Telecommunication Union in its annual List of Ships' Stations to be used for the information interchange between vessels, port authorities and other relevant participants in international trade. Note: The code structure is based on a three digit designation series assigned by the ITU and a one digit assigned by the country of registration.
Capacity   ? The ability, in a given time, of a resource measured in quality and quantity.
    ? The quantity of goods which can be stored in or loaded into a warehouse, store and/or loaded into a means of transport at a particular time.
Cargo   ? Goods transported or to be transported, all goods carried on a ship covered by a Bill of Lading.
    ? Any goods, wares, merchandise, and articles of every kind whatsoever carried on a ship, other than mail, ship's stores, ship's spare parts, ship's equipment, stowage material, crew's effects and passengers' accompanied baggage (IMO)
    ? Any property carried on an aircraft, other than mail, stores and accompanied or mishandled baggage, also referred to as 'goods' (ICAO)
Cargo Handling   All procedures necessary to enable the physical handling of goods.
Cargo Tracer   A document sent by the agent to all relevant parties, stating that certain cargo is either missing or over-landed.
Cargo Unit   A vehicle, container, pallet, flat, portable tank or any other entity or any part thereof which belongs to the ship but is not permanently attached to that ship.
Carriage   The process of transporting (conveying) cargo, from one point to another.
Carriage and Insurance Paid   (...named place of destination)
    Abbreviation: CIP
Carriage Paid To   (...named place of destination)
    Abbreviation: CPT
Carrier   The party undertaking transport of goods from one point to another.
Carrier Haulage   The inland transport service, which is performed by the sea-carrier under the terms and conditions of the tariff and of the relevant transport document.
Carriers Bill of Lading Ports   Terminal, Pre-terminal port or Post-terminal Port as per tariff, indicated on the Bill of Lading and which is not the port physically called at by Carriers' ocean vessels.
    Note: Under normal circumstances in the Bill of Lading only ports should be mentioned which are actually called at.
Carriers Lien   When the shipper ships goods 'collect', the carrier has a possessory claim on these goods, which means that the carrier can retain possession of the goods as security for the charges due.
Cartage   Abbreviation: CAD
    Terms of payment: if the buyer of goods pays for the goods against transfer of the documents, this entitles him to obtain delivery of the goods from the carrier.
Cash On Delivery   Abbreviation: COD
    Terms of payment: if the carrier collects a payment from the consignee and remits the amount to the shipper (air cargo).
Caveat Emptor   Let the buyer beware, purchaser must ascertain the condition of the goods to be purchased prior to the purchase.
Cellular Vessel   A vessel, specially designed and equipped for the carriage of containers.
CENSA   Council of European and Japanese National Shipowner's Associations.
Certificate of Classification   A certificate, issued by the classification society and stating the class under which a vessel is registered.
Certificate of Origin   A certificate, showing the country of original production of goods. Frequently used by customs in ascertaining duties under preferential tariff programmes or in connection with regulating imports from specific sources.
Charge   An amount to be paid for carriage of goods based on the applicable rate of such carriage, or an amount to be paid for a special or incidental service in connection with the carriage of goods.
Charge Type   A separate, identifiable element of charges to be used in the pricing/rating of common services rendered to customers.
/Charter Contract   ? A contract in which the shipowner agrees to place his vessel or a part of it at the disposal of a third party, the charterer, for the carriage of goods for which he receives a freight per ton cargo, or to let his vessel for a definite period or trip for which a hire is paid.
Charterer   The legal person who has signed a charter party with the owner of a vessel or an aircraft and thus hires or leases a vessel or an aircraft or a part of the capacity thereof.
Chassis   ? A wheeled carriage onto which an ocean container is mounted for inland conveyance.
    ? The part of a motor vehicle that includes the engine, the frame, suspension system, wheels, steering mechanism etc., but not the body.
Claim   A charge made against a carrier for loss, damage or delay.
Classification   Arrangement according to a systematic division of a number of objects into groups, based on some likeness or some common traits.
Classification Society   An Organisation, whose main function is to carry out surveys of vessels, its purpose being to set and maintain standards of construction and upkeep for vessels, their engines and their safety equipment. A classification society also inspects and approves the construction of containers.
Clean Bill of Lading   A Bill of Lading which does not contain any qualification about the apparent order and condition of the goods to be transported (it bears no stamped clauses on the front of the Bill of Lading). It bears no superimposed clauses expressly declaring a defective condition of the goods or packaging (resolution of the ICS 1951).
Clean on Board   When goods are loaded on board and the document issued in respect to these goods is clean.
    Note:Through the usage of the UCP 500 rules the term has now become superfluous.
Client   A party with which a company has a commercial relationship concerning the transport of e.g. cargo or concerning certain services of the company concerned, either directly or through an agent.
Co-loading   The loading, on the way, of cargo from another shipper, having the same final destination as the cargo loaded earlier.
Combined Transport   Intermodal transport where the major part of the journey is by one mode such as rail, inland waterway or sea and any initial and/or final leg carried out by another mode such as road.
Combined Transport   Abbreviation: CTD
Document   Negotiable or non-negotiable document evidencing a contract for the performance and/or procurement of performance of combined transport of goods.Thus a combined transport document is a document issued by a Carrier who contracts as a principal with the Merchant to effect a combined transport often on a door-to-door basis.
    Combined Transport Operator
    Abbreviation: CTO
    A party who undertakes to carry goods with different modes of transport.
Commercial Invoice   A document showing commercial values of the transaction between the buyer and seller.
Commodity   Indication of the type of goods. Commodities are coded according to the harmonised system.
Conditions   ? Anything called for as requirements before the performance or completion of something else
    ? Contractual stipulations which are printed on a document or provided separately
Conditions of Carriage   The general terms and conditions established by a carrier in respect of the carriage (air cargo).
Conditions of Contract   Terms and conditions shown on the Air Waybill (air cargo).
Conference   Accumulation of vessels at a port to the extent that vessels arriving to load or discharge are obliged to wait for a vacant berth.
Consignee   The party such as mentioned in the transport document by whom the goods, cargo or containers are to be received.
Consignment   A separate identifiable number of goods (available to be) transported from one consignor to one consignee via one or more than one modes of transport and specified in one single transport document.
Consignment Instructions   Instructions from either the seller/consignor or the buyer/consignee to a freight forwarder, carrier or his agent, or other provider of a service, enabling the movement of goods and associated activities. The following functions can be covered:
    ? Movement and handling of goods (shipping, forwarding and stowage)
    ? Customs formalities
    ? Distribution of documents
    ? Allocation of documents (freight and charges for the connected operations).
    ? Special instructions (insurance, dangerous goods, goods release, additional documents required).
Consignment Note   A document prepared by the shipper and comprising a transport contract. It contains details of the consignment to be carried to the port of loading and it is signed by the inland carrier as proof of receipt.
Consignor   To group and stuff several shipments together in one container.
Consolidated Container   Container stuffed with several shipments (consignments) from different shippers for delivery to one or more consignees.
Consolidation   The grouping together of smaller consignments of goods into a large consignment for carriage as a larger unit in order to obtain a reduced rate.
Consolidation Point   Location where consolidation of consignments takes place.
Consolidator   A firm or company which consolidates cargo.
Consortium   Consortium is a form of co-operation between two or more carriers to operate in a particular trade.
Container   An item of equipment as defined by the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) for transport purposes. It must be of:
    ? a permanent character and accordingly strong enough to be suitable for repeated use.
    ? specially designed to facilitate the carriage of goods, by one or more modes of transport without intermediate reloading.
    ? fitted with devices permitting its ready handling, particularly from one mode of transport to another
    ? so designed as to be easy to fill and empty
    ? having an internal volume of 1 m3 or more
    The term container includes neither vehicles nor conventional packing.
Container Check Digit   The 7th digit of the serial number of a container used to check whether prefix and serial number are correct.
Container Depot   Storage area for empty containers.
Container Freight Station   Abbreviation: CFS
    A facility at which (export) LCL cargo is received from merchants for loading (stuffing) into containers or at which (import) LCL cargo is unloaded (stripped) from containers and delivered to merchants.
Container Lease   The contract by which the owner of containers (lessor) gives the use of containers to a lessee for a specified period of time and for fixed payments.
CLP Container Load Plan A list of items loaded in a specific container and where appropriates their sequence of loading.
Container Manifest   The document specifying the contents of particular freight containers or other transport units, prepared by the party responsible for their loading into the container or unit.
Container Number   Identification number of a container consisting of prefix and serial number and check digit. (E.g. KNLU 123456-7)
Container Prefix   A four letter code that forms the first part of a container identification number indicating the owner of a container.
Container Size Code   An indication of 2 digits of the nominal length and nominal height.
Container Terminal   Place where loaded and/or empty containers are loaded or discharged into or from a means of transport.
Container Yard   Abbreviation: CY
    A facility at which FCL traffic and empty containers are received from or delivered to the Merchant by or on behalf of the Carrier. Note: Often this yard is used to receive goods on behalf of the merchant and pack these in containers for FCL traffic.
Containerised   Indication that goods have been stowed in a container.
Contraband   Goods forbidden by national law for import or export.
Contract   An agreement enforceable by law between two or more parties stipulating their rights and obligations which are required by one or both parties to acts or forbearance by the other or both.
Conventional Cargo   General cargo conventionally stowed as opposed to unitised, containerised and Roll On-Roll Off cargo.
Cost and Freight   (...named port of destination)
    Abbreviation: CFR
Cost, Insurance and Freight   (...named port of destination) Abbreviation: CIF
Crew Member   Any person actually employed for duties on board during a voyage in the working or service of a ship and included in the crew list (IMO).
Cruise Ship   A ship on an international voyage carrying passengers participating in a group program and accommodated on board, for the purpose of making scheduled temporary tourist visits at one or more different ports, and which during the voyage does not normally: (a) embark or disembark any other passengers; (b) load or discharge any cargo.
Currency Adjustment Factor   Abbreviation: CAF
    Adjustment applied by lines or liner conferences on freight rates to offset losses or gains for carriers resulting from fluctuations in exchange rates of tariff currencies.
Customs   The department of the Civil Service that deals with the levying of duties and taxes on imported goods from foreign countries and the control over the export and import of goods e.g. allowed quota prohibited goods.
Customs Broker   An authorised agent specialised in customs clearance procedures on account of importers/exporters.
Customs Clearance Agent   Customs broker or other agent of the consignee designated to perform customs clearance services for the consignee.
Customs Invoice   Document required by the customs in an importing country in which an exporter states the invoice or other price (e.g.selling price, price of identical goods), and specifies costs for freight, insurance and packing etc., terms of delivery and payment, for the purpose of determining the customs value in the importing country of goods consigned to that country.
Customs Value   The worth of an item or group of items expressed in a monetary amount, within a consignment declared to Customs for duty and statistical reasons.
Damaged Cargo Report   A written statement concerning established damages to cargo and/or equipment.
Dangerous Goods   Goods are to be considered dangerous if the transport of such goods might cause harm, risk, peril, or other evil to people, environment, equipment or any property whatsoever.
Dangerous Goods Declaration   Document issued by a consignor in accordance with applicable conventions or regulations, describing hazardous goods or materials for transport purposes, and stating that the latter have been packed and labeled in accordance with the provisions of the relevant conventions or regulations.
Dangerous Goods Packing Certificate   A document as part of the dangerous goods declaration in which the responsible party declares that the cargo has been stowed in accordance with the rules in a clean container in compliance with the IMDG regulations and properly secured.
Deadfreight   Slots paid for but not used.
Deadweight   Abbreviation: DWT
    The total weight of cargo, cargo equipment, bunkers, provisions, water, stores and spare parts which a vessel can lift when loaded to her maximum draught as applicable under the circumstances. The dead-weight is expressed in tons.
Degroupage   Splitting up shipments into small consignments.
Delivered Duty Paid   (...named place of destination)
    Abbreviation: DDP
Delivered Duty Unpaid   (...named place of destination) Abbreviation: DDU
Delivered Ex Quay   (...named port of destination)
    Abbreviation: DEQ
Delivered Ex Ship   (...named port of destination)
    Abbreviation: DES
Delivery Instruction   Document issued by a buyer giving instructions regarding the details of the delivery of goods ordered.
Delivery Note   A document recording the delivery of products to a consignee (customer).
Delivery Order   ? A carrier's delivery order (negotiable document) is used for splitting a Bill of Lading (after surrender) in different parcels and have the same function as a Bill of Lading.
    ? The authorisation of the entitled party for the shipment to a party other than the consignee showed on the Air Waybill (air cargo)
Demurrage   ? A variable fee charged to carriers and/or customers for the use of Unit Load Devices (ULD's) owned by a carrier beyond the free time of shipment
    ? Additional charge imposed for exceeding the free time, which is included in the rate and allowed for the use of certain equipment at the terminal
Despatch Advice   Information sent by shippers to the recipient of goods informing that specified goods are sent or ready to be sent advising the detailed contents of the consignment.
Destination   ? Place for which goods or a vehicle is bound
    ? The ultimate stopping place according to the contract of carriage (air cargo)
Detention   Keeping equipment beyond the time allowed.
Detention Charge   Charges levied on usage of equipment exceeding free time period as stipulated in the pertinent inland rules and conditions.
Devanning   See Stripping, UnpackingDeviation from a Route A divergence from the agreed or customary route.
Dimensions   Measurements in length, width and height of the cargo.
Direct Delivery   ? The conveyance of goods directly from the vendor to the buyer. Frequently used if a third party acts as intermediary agent between vendor and buyer.
    ? Direct discharge from vessel onto railroad car, road vehicle or barge with the purpose of immediate transport from the port area (usually occurs when ports lack adequate storage space or when ports are not equipped to handle a specific cargo).
Direct Interchange   Transfer of leased equipment from one lessee to another (container).
Direct Route   The shortest operated route between two points.
Discharge   The unloading of a vehicle, a vessel or an aircraft.
Discrepancy   Difference between the particulars given and the particulars found.
Distribution Centre   A warehouse for the receipt, the storage and the dispersal of goods among customers.
Distribution Channel   The route by which a company distributes goods.
Door to Door Transport   The transport of cargo from the premises of the consignor to the premises of the consignee.
    Note: In the United States the term 'Point to Point Transport' is used instead of the term 'Door to Door Transport', because the term 'house' may mean 'customs house' or 'brokers house', which are usually located in the port.
Double Stack Train   A number of railway wagons, usually a block train, on which containers can be stacked two- high.
Draft   The draft of a vessel is the vertical distance between the waterline and the underside of the keel of the vessel. During the construction of a vessel the marks showing the draft are welded on each side of the vessel near the stem, the stern and amidships.
Drawback   Repayment of any part of customs or excise duties previously collected on imported goods, when those goods are exported again.
Drayage   ? The hauling of a load by a cart with detachable sides (dray).
    ? Road transportation between the nearest railway terminal and the stuffing place
Drop off Charge   Charge made by container owner and/or terminal operators for delivery of a leased, or pool container into depot stock. The drop-off charge may be a combination of actual handling and storage charges with surcharges.
Dunnage   Stowage material, mainly timber or board, used to prevent damage to cargo during carriage.
Duty Free Zone   An area where goods or cargo can be stored without paying import customs duties awaiting further transport or manufacturing.
EDI For Administration, Commerce and Transport   Abbreviation: UN /EDIFACT
    The ISO application level syntax rules for the structuring of user data and of the associated service data in the interchange of messages in an open environment.
Electronic Data Interchange   Abbreviation: EDI
    The transfer of structured data, by agreed standards from applications on the computer of one party to the applications on the computer of another party by electronic means.
Electronic Data Processing   Abbreviation: EDP
    The computerised handling of information (e.g. business data).
Embargo   ? A government order prohibiting the entry or departure of commercial vessels or goods at its ports
    ? The refusal by a carrier, for a limited period, to accept for transport over any route or segment thereof,and to or from any area or point, of a connecting carrier, any commodity, type of class of cargo duly tendered (air cargo)
Emergency Medical Service   Abbreviation: EMS
    Medical procedures in case of emergencies on board of vessels.
Endorsement   The transfer of the right to obtain delivery of the goods of the carrier by means of the consignee's signature on the reverse side of a bill of lading. If the name of the new consignee (transferee) is not stated, the endorsement is an open one which means that every holder of the document is entitled to obtain delivery of the goods.
Equipment Interchange Receipt   Abbreviation: EIR
    Physical inspection and transfer receipt.
Estimated Time of Arrival   Abbreviation: ETA The expected date and time of arrival in a certain airport.
Estimated Time of Departure   Abbreviation: ETD
    The expected date and time when a certain airport is left.
Ex Works (...named place)   Abbreviation: EXW
    The process of carrying or sending goods to another country or countries, especially for purposes of use or sale in the country of destination. The sale of products to clients abroad.
Export Licence   Document granting permission to export as detailed within a specified time.
Exporter   The party responsible for the export of goods.
Factory Delivery   The delivery of goods by a factory whereby the goods are put at the disposal of another (internal) party such as a commercial department.
Feeder   A vessel normally used for local or coastal transport (for carriage of cargo and/or containers) to and from ports not scheduled to be called by the main (ocean) vessel, directly connecting these ports to the main (ocean) vessel.
Flag   An indication of the country in which a means of transport is registered through a reference to the ensign of this country.
Flammable   Capable to be set on fire under given circumstances. (Amendment 25 IMO DGS).
Flash Point   The lowest temperature at which a good produces enough vapour to form a flammable mixture with air.
Flat Rack Container   A container with two end walls and open sides.
Fleet   Any group of means of transport acting together or under one control.
FMC   Federal Maritime Commission (Control of Shipping acts USA)
Force Majeure   Circumstance which is beyond the control of one of the parties to a contract and which may, according to the terms and conditions, relieve that party of liability for failing to execute the contract.
Fork Lift Truck   A three or four wheeled mechanical truck with forks at the front designed for lifting, carrying and stowing cargo.
Forty Foot Equivalent Unit   Abbreviation: FEU
    Unit of measurement equivalent to one forty foot container.
Forwarder   The party arranging the carriage of goods including connected services and/or associated formalities on behalf of a shipper or consignee.
Forwarding Charge   Charges paid or to be paid for preliminary surface or air transport to the airport of departure by a forwarder, but not by a carrier under an Air Waybill (air cargo).
Forwarding Instruction   Document issued to a freight forwarder, giving instructions to the forwarder for the forwarding of goods described therein.
FTL   Full Truck Load, an indication for a truck transporting cargo directly from supplier to receiver.
Gang   A number of workmen acting together especially for loading and/or discharging operations of a vessel in combination with the necessary gear. (On a vessel for instance 6 gangs can be ordered to discharge or load.)
Garments On Hangers   Clothes in containers on hangers and hung from rails during transit, reducing the handling required for the garments.
Gateway   ? A point at which cargo is interchanged between carriers or modes of transport
    ? A means of access, an entry
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade   Abbreviation: GATT
    Major international agreement on trade and tariffs between many nations all over the world. The discussions are now held by the WTO.
General Average   Abbreviation: G/A
    Intentional act or sacrifice which is carried out to safeguard vessel and cargo. When a vessel is in danger, the master has the right to sacrifice property and/or to incur reasonable expenditure. Measures taken for the sole benefit of any particular interest are not considered general average.
General Average Act (York-Antwerp Rules)   There is a general average act when, and only when any extraordinary sacrifice or expenditure is intentionally and reasonably made or incurred for the common safety for the purpose of preserving.
General Cargo   ? Cargo, consisting of goods, unpacked or packed, for example in cartons, crates, bags or bales, often palletised. General cargo can be shipped either in break bulk or containerized.
    ? Any consignment other than a consignment containing valuable cargo and charged for transport at general cargo rates (air cargo)
General Purpose Container   A container used for the carriage of general cargo without any special requirements for the transport and or the conditioning of the goods.
Goods   ? Common term indicating movable property, merchandise or wares
    ? All materials which can be used to satisfy demands.
    ? Whole or part of the cargo received from the shipper, including any equipment supplied by the shipper
Goods in Transit   The goods which have departed from the initial loading point and not yet arrived at the final unloading point.
Goods Receipt   Document issued by a port, warehouse, shed, or terminal operator acknowledging receipt of goods specified therein on conditions stated or referred to in the document.
Groupage   The collection of several small consignments and the formation of one large shipment thereof (road cargo).
Hague Rules   International convention for the unification of certain rules, relating to Bills of Lading (1924). These Rules include the description of responsibilities of Shipping Lines.
Hague-Visby Rules   Set of rules, published in 1968, amending the Hague Rules.
Hamburg Rules   United Nations Convention on the carriage of goods by sea of 1978 adopted in 1992.
Harmonized System   Abbreviation: HS
    It is a numeric multipurpose system, the international convention on the HS was established under auspices of the World Customs Organisation in 1983, for the classification of goods with its six digits covering about 5000 descriptions of the products or groups of products most commonly produced and traded. It is designed for customs services, but can also be used for statistics, transport purposes, export,mport and manufacturing.
Haulage   The inland carriage of cargo or containers between named locations/points.
    ? Merchant inspired Carrier Haulage or customer nominated Carrier Haulage or shipper preferred Carrier Haulage service performed by a sub-contractor of the merchant.
    ? Carrier inspired Merchant Haulage means Haulage service performed by a sub- contractor of the Carrier
Haulier   Road carrier.
House to House Transport   The transport of cargo from the premises of the consignor to the premises of the consignee. Note:In the United States the term 'Point to Point Transport' is used instead of the term 'Door to Door Transport', because the term 'house' may mean 'customs house' or 'brokers house', which are usually located in the port.
Hub   The central transshipment point in a transport structure,serving a number of consignees and/or consignors by means of spokes. The stretches between hubs mutually are referred to as trunks.
Idle Time   The amount of ineffective time whereby the available resources are not used e.g. a container in a yard.
In Transit   The status of goods or persons between the outwards customs clearance and inwards customs clearance.
Incoterms   Trade terms in coded form as established by the International Chamber of Commerce in 1953, whereafter they have been regularly updated. The terms represent a set of international rules for the interpretation of the principal terms of delivery used in trade contracts.
    Incoterms 2010 are in effect as on January 1st, 2011. Since the last revision, Incoterms 2000, there have been a number of changes in both global and domestic trade, this revision addresses those changes.
    In contrast to the previous four classes, E, F, C and D, Incoterms will now be separated into 2 groups, those applicable to all modes of transport and those only applicable to sea and inland waterway transport.
    There will now be a total of 11 terms instead of 13, with 2 new additions, DAP and DAT and 4 deletions, DAF, DDU, DEQ and DES.
    Incoterms 2010 applicable for all modes of transport:
    EXW : ex works
    FCA : free carrier
    CPT : carriage paid to
    CIP : carriage and insurance paid to
    DAT : delivered at terminal ? NEW!
    DAP : delivered at place ? NEW!
    DDP : delivered duty paid
    Incoterms 2010 only applicable for sea and inland waterway transport:
    FAS : free alongside ship
    FOB : free on board
    CFR : cost and freight
    CIF : cost, insurance and freight
Inland Waterways Bill of Lading   Transport document made out to a named person, to order or to bearer, signed by the carrier and handed to the sender after receipt of the goods.
Insurance   A system of protection against loss under which a party agrees to pay a certain sum (premiums) for a guarantee that they will be compensated under certain conditions for loss or damage.
Insurance Certificate   Proof of an insurance contract.
Insurance Company   The party covering the risks of the issued goods and/or services that are insured.
Inter Modal Transport   The movement of goods (containers) in one and the same loading unit or vehicle which uses successively several modes of transport without handling of the goods themselves in changing modes.
International Air Transport Association   Abbreviation: IATA
    An international organisation of airlines, founded in 1945,with the aim of promoting the commercial air traffic. Parties should achieve this by co-operation between the parties concerned and by performance of certain rules, procedures and tariffs, regarding both cargo and passengers.
International Association of Classification Societies   An organisation in which the major classification societies, among others like American Bureau of Shipping, Lloyd's Register of Shipping and Germanischer Lloyd, are joined, whose principal aim is the improvement of standards concerning safety at sea.
International Chamber of Shipping   Abbreviation: ICS
    A voluntary organisation of national shipowners associations with the objective to promote interests of its members, primarily in the technical and legal fields of shipping operations.
International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code   Abbreviation: IMDG Code
    A code, representing the classification of dangerous goods as defined by the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) in compliance with international legal requirements.
International Maritime Organisation   Abbreviation: IMO
    A United Nations agency concerned with safety at sea. Its work includes codes and rules relating to tonnage measurement of vessels, load lines, pollution and the carriage of dangerous goods. Its previous name was the Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organisation (IMCO).
Invoice   An account from the supplier, for goods and/or services supplied by him.
Jetsam   Goods thrown or lost.
Jettison   The act of intentionally throwing cargo overboard e.g. with the objective of lightening a vessel, which has run aground, such for the common good of all interests: vessel, crew and remaining cargo.
Jetty   A mole or breakwater, running out into the sea to protect harbours or coasts. It is sometimes used as a landing-pier.
Jib   ? Projecting arm of a crane
    ? Attachment connected to the top of a crane boom
Job   That work which is undertaken to meet a customer or production order and, for production control purposes and has a unique identification.
Joint Venture   A joint activity of two or more companies usually performed under a common name.
Journey   A voyage from one place, port or country to another one, in case of a round trip, to the same one.
Jurisprudence   Juridical decisions used for explanation and meaning of law.
Just In Time   Abbreviation: JIT
    The movement of material/goods at the necessary place at the necessary time. The implication is that each operation is closely synchronised with the subsequent ones to make that possible. A method of inventory control that brings stock into the production process, warehouse or to the customer just in time to be used, thus reducing stock piling.
Kyoto Convention   The convention for the International Customs Co-operation Council held in Kyoto in 1974 for the simplification and harmonisation of national customs procedures.
    On 25th of June 1999 the updated and restructured International Convention on the simplification and harmonisation of Customs Procedures (Kyoto Convention) was unanimously adopted by 114 customs administrations.
    This convention was restructured to deal with computerised controls and to ensure better co- operation between customs authorities mutually and with trade in general.
Label   A slip e.g. paper or metal attached to an object to indicate the nature, ownership, destination, contents and/or other particulars of the object.
Lash   To hold goods in position by the use of, e.g., wires, ropes, chains and straps.
Less than Container Load   Abbreviation: LCL
    ? A general reference for identifying cargo in any quantity intended for carriage in a container, where the Carrier is responsible for packing and/or unpacking the container.
    ? For operational purposes an LCL (Less than full container load) container is considered a container in which multiple consignments or parts thereof are shipped.
Lessee   The party to whom the possession of specified property has been conveyed for a period of time in return for rental payments.
Lessor   The party who conveys specified property to another for a period of time in return for the receipt of rent.
Letter of Credit   Abbreviation: L/C
    A written undertaking by a bank (issuing bank) given to the seller (beneficiary) at the request, and on the instructions of the buyer (applicant) to pay at sight or at a determinable future date up to a stated sum of money, within a prescribed time limit and against stipulated documents.
Letter of Indemnity   Written statement in which one party undertakes to compensate another for the costs and consequences of carrying out a certain act. The issue of a letter of indemnity is sometimes used for cases when a shipper receives a clean Bill of Lading while a carrier is not allowed to do so.
Liability   Legal responsibility for the consequences of certain acts or omissions.
Lien   A legal claim upon real or personal property to pay a debt or duty.
Liner Conference   A group of two or more vessel-operating carriers, which provides international liner services for the carriage of cargo on a particular trade route and which has an agreement or arrangement to operate under uniform or common freight rates and any other agreed conditions (e.g. FEFC = Far Eastern Freight Conference).
Liner In Free Out   Abbreviation: LIFO
    Transport condition denoting that the freight rate is inclusive of the sea carriage and the cost of loading, the latter as per the custom of the port. It excludes the cost of discharging.
Liner Terms   Condition of carriage denoting that costs for loading and unloading are borne by the carrier subject the custom of the port concerned.
Lloyd's Register of Shipping   British classification society.
LTL   Abbreviation: LTL
    A term used if the quantity or volume of one or more consignment(s) does not fill a standard truck. Main-line Operator
    Abbreviation: MLO A carrier employing vessel(s) in the main or principal routes in a trade but not participating within a consortium.
Manifest   Document, which lists the specifications of goods, loaded in a means of transport or equipment for transportation purposes. As a rule, agents in the place of loading draw up manifests for cargo. For P&O; Nedlloyd a manifest represents a cumulation of Bills of Lading for official and administrative purposes.
Marine Insurance Policy   An insurance policy protecting the insured against loss or damage to his goods occurred during ocean transport.
Mate's Receipt   A document signed by the chief officer of a vessel acknowledging the receipt of a certain consignment on board of that vessel. On this document, remarks can be made as to the order and condition of the consignment.
Medical First Aid Guide   Abbreviation: MFAG
    Instructions to be consulted in case of accidents involving dangerous goods.
Merchant Haulage   Inland transport of cargo in containers arranged by the Merchant. It includes empty container-moves to and from hand-over points in respect of containers released by the Carrier to Merchants.Note: Carrier's responsibility under the Bill of Lading does not include the inland transport stretch under Merchant Haulage.
Multi Modal Transport   The carriage of goods (containers) by at least two different modes of transport.
Multi Modal Transport Document   Negotiable or non-negotiable document evidencing a contract for the performance and/or procurement of performance of combined transport of goods.
    Thus a combined transport document is a document issued by a Carrier who contracts as a principal with the Merchant to affect a combined transport often on a door-to-door basis.
Multi Modal Transport Operator/Carrier   Abbreviation: MTO/Carrier
    The person on whose behalf the transport document or any document evidencing a contract of multi Modal carriage of goods is issued and who is responsible for the carriage of goods pursuant to the contract of carriage.


Terms Full Form Defination
EXW Ex-Works The title and risk passes on to the buyer including the payment of all transportation and insurance cost from the seller's point. It can be used for any mode of transport.
FCA Free Carrier The title and risk passes on to the buyer included the transportation and insurance cost if the seller delivers the goods cleared for export to the carrier. In this case the seller is obligated to load the goods on the buyer's collecting vehicle but it is the buyer's obligation to receive the seller's arriving vehicle unloaded.
FAS Free Alongside Ship The title and risk passes on to the buyer, included the transportation and insurance payment, once the goods are delivered alongside shipby the seller. It is only used for the sea or inland waterway transportation and the export clearance obligation rests with the seller.
FOB Free On Board In FOB the risk passes to the buyer, including the transportation and insurance payment, once delivered on board the ship by the seller. It is only used for sea or inland waterway transportation.
CFR Cost and Freight The title, risk and the insurance cost passes on to the buyer if delivered on board the ship by seller who paid the transportation cost to the destination point. It is only used for sea or inland waterway transportation.
CIF Cost, Insurance and Freight The title and risk passes on to the buyer if delivered on board the ship by the seller who paid the transportation and insurance cost to the destination port. It is used for sea or inland waterway transportation
CPT Carriage Paid To The title, risk and insurance cost passes to the buyer if the goods delivered to carrier by the seller who pays transportation cost to the destination. It can be used for any mode of transportation.
CIP Carriage and Insurance Paid To The title and risk passes to the buyer if the seller delivers the goods to carrier by the seller and he pays transportation and insurance cost to destination. It can be used for any mode of transportation.
DAF Delivered at Frontier The title, risk and responsibility for the import clearance passes on to the buyer if the seller delivers the goods to named border point. It can be used for any mode of transportation.
DES Delivered Ex Ship The title, risk, responsibility for the vessel discharge and the import clearance passes on to the buyer when the seller delivers it on board the ship to destination port. It is used for sea or inland waterway transportation.
DEQ Delivered Ex Quay - Duty Paid The title and risk passes to the buyer if the goods are delivered on board the ship at the destination point by the seller who on his part delivers the goods on dock at the destination point cleared for import. It is used for sea or inland waterway transportation.
DDU Delivered Duty Unpaid The title, risk and responsibility of the import clearance passes on to the buyer if the seller delivers the goods to the named destination point. It can be used for any mode of transportation. Here the buyer is obligated for import clearance.
DDP Delivered Duty Paid The title and risk passes on to the buyer when the seller delivers the goods to the named destination point cleared for the import. It is also used for any mode of transportation